This week I prepared my first exam, for the ‘Australian Births, Deaths and Marriages’ course for the National Institute for Genealogical Studies. I actually found it surprisingly difficult, partly because I remember sitting many exams in the past & finding fault with multiple choice questions where answers could be argued.
How do you measure somebody’s skills at using births, deaths and marriages indexes, and interpreting certificates? I didn’t want all answers to be found in the notes. (Although knowing “What year did civil registration start in NSW?” – 1856 – might be useful, because there is usually more information on a civil birth certificate than the early church records baptism certificate.)
I believe that effectively using BDM indexes is more about your searching skills and being able to analyse and look for clues in the results found. Such skills improve over time – perhaps because after falling into a trap you are less likely to do so next time.
In this exam I tested skills like recognising the possibility of spelling variations, where you won’t find the birth if you search for the name exactly as it appeared in the death index (using a wildcard helps). Or linking that bride named Annie with the birth of a daughter named Ann.
I think these are the real skills of researching family history. Not jumping to conclusions when you stumble on one person who happens to have the right name and is born in the right place, before looking to see if they might have died as an infant and so could not possibly be the groom in a marriage 25 years later. Alternatively if you look and don’t find, then thinking about how else to search.
Researchers need to be aware that just because the marriage certificate said they married at age 20, doesn’t mean it’s true. I always start searching a range of dates and increase or decrease the range if necessary. One couple in my family had 5 children and then were married. (The bride was previously married and could not remarry until after the death of her first husband.) I would not have found the marriage if I only looked before the birth of their first child.
One skill that improves over time that I did not test in this exam, is handwriting recognition. (Ironically someone in my family has dreadful handwriting and he is fantastic at helping me interpret old hard-to-read handwriting.)
What do you think of this? (I remember how hard I found this at first, but now it seems not bad.)
I started down the DNA learning path several years ago. My Dad’s father was adopted, & when I eventually found his birth certificate it contained no information about his father. An unusual middle name and circumstantial evidence suggested someone, but with no documentary evidence, DNA seemed a way to test my theory.
I found a grandson of this possible ancestor – son of a son, so a good candidate for y-chromosome DNA comparison with my father. I asked – if I paid for it, would he be willing to have his DNA tested to compare with my father’s DNA? He said yes, but unfortunately the test proved that he and my father were not related. (DNA is often better at disproving rather than proving relationships.)
I used the company Family Tree DNA, which has the largest database for testing and comparison, and now that I am registered, I am advised when others match my Dad’s DNA. I hope that one day I will find someone with the right DNA,who had an ancestor in the right place and at the right time.
Some time later, I had the opportunity to speak to Megan Smolenyak about my problem & confirm my method. I asked Megan for her advice about which company should I use to test my Mum’s DNA.
Females don’t have y-chromosomes so cannot have the y-DNA tests done. However humans have other DNA outside the cell nucleus, called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mothers pass mtDNA to all their children, but only their daughters pass it on. I wanted my Mum’s DNA to be tested now and also stored for the future, for as-yet-undeveloped tests. Forensic scientists use mitochondrial DNA now, but for genealogists mtDNA is mostly only used for deep ancestry testing, not for finding ‘recent’ ancestors (those in a genealogical timeframe).
Megan suggested that I have my mother’s DNA tested with the company 23andMe, as they were developing new tests and could offer more information about female ancestors. 23andMe tests give information about genetic health issues, in addition to genealogical ancestry matching – so I took that advice.
These 2 companies that I had used (23andMe & FamilyTreeDNA) offer very different information in their test results. Results from the FamilyTreeDNA tests are tables of numbers, indicating the DNA at specific genetic marker points. There is also a YSearch database for comparing results, and even people who have had their DNA tested with other companies can search this freely – you manually enter the numbers (alleles) at various marker locations and see if the results match anyone in the YSearch database.
The results from 23andMe gave information about genetic health risks and tendencies and general DNA groupings – it required a bit more delving to actually find the numbers that correspond to the (mitochondrial) DNA markers.
Around a year ago, both these companies announced new tests involving autosomal DNA. 23andMe call this ‘Relative Finder’ – FamilyTreeDNA call it ‘Family Finder’. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell nucleus – 22 pairs of autosomes and also another pair, the ‘sex chromosomes’ (XX for females, XY for males). The autosomes contain bits of DNA inherited from all your ancestors, not just from all-male or all-female lines. You share larger pieces of DNA in common with close relatives, and smaller bits of autosomal DNA with relatives less closely related.
Both males and females have this autosomal DNA, so now you can find relationships with anyone sharing any common ancestor, not just the all-paternal or all-maternal lines. This new autosomal DNA test has thrown up some new possibilities and new candidates in the search for my father’s father’s heritage. (We already have found a close relative with interesting possibilities.)
However, back to the initial subject. The company 23andMe is offering a special price for the next few days, and some Facebook friends decided to take advantage of it. I agonised whether I should join them, given that I already have tested my father’s DNA as well as my mother’s mitochondrial DNA.
In terms of autosomal DNA, although the test is new, I suspect that the company FamilyTreeDNA is likely to have a bigger database for comparisons. (For me the main value of DNA tests is looking to match with others, and so larger databases are better.)
But 23andMe gives other information – about genetic related diseases – in addition to the study of ancestry. I have decided that both companies’ tests are of interest to me. So now I too have taken advantage of the current special price, and will get my own DNA tested.
Of course there are many other testing companies, and websites with information about DNA. I give talks about ‘DNA for Genealogists’ (my handout can be found on my website). The handout contains information about various testing companies and their information pages, as well as other sites with DNA tutorials, mailing lists and even a DNA Wiki.
For now though, I have joined the ranks of those waiting for a test tube to be posted to me, so I can take the next step in this DNA journey.
Australians refer to Births, Deaths and Marriages (or BDM) – in alphabetical order. In UK these are described as BMD (in chronological order) while most Northern Americans refer to Vital Statistics.
I’ve been writing a course on Australian Births, Deaths and Marriages for the National Institute of Genealogical Studies. In Australia births, deaths and marriages are managed separately by each state or territory. While these have some common history there are also differences in the records and indexes available. (Links to the various BDM Registries can be found here.)
The following are some tips for saving money, while searching Australian BDM:
- Check whether a family member already has a copy of the certificate you want.
- Most states’ and territories’ Registry BDM indexes online are free to search, although Victoria’s cost & some regions don’t have online indexes.
- Most states and territories have BDM indexes on CDROMs that can be searched freely at libraries and genealogical societies.
- Ancestry.com is available to use freely at many libraries, genealogical societies & Family History Centers, so you do not need a personal subscription to check the combined ‘Australian Birth, Marriage and Death Index’.
- Cross-check details as much as possible before ordering, to minimise wrongly ordered certificates.
- Check holdings of genealogical societies – someone else might have deposited a copy of the certificate you want.
- Check the Australasia Births, Deaths & Marriages Exchange in case someone else has the certificate you want.
- Certificates are often cheaper if you can provide the name, year and registration numbers (and sometimes registration districts) – so check an index first and write down ALL the details.
- For New South Wales (NSW) and Tasmania, many 19th century church records are microfilmed & you may be able to see them at a genealogical society or library and write down the details yourself.
- For NSW transcriptions are cheaper than full certificates. Obtain these from Marilyn Rowan, Joy Murrin or Laurie Turtle. Early Church Records transcriptions are cheaper than civil certificate transcriptions.
- In South Australia transcriptions can sometimes be obtained free from the public libraries that hold District Registers. Note that each library can only provide transcriptions of one district, not others. Some libraries charge for this service and some offer it free. (eg Unley Library holds Adelaide District Register ONLY and will copy for researchers who live too far from the library to visit.)
- South Australian Genealogy & Heraldry Society (SAGHS) offers transcriptions of all districts of historic South Australian certificates.
- For Victoria, historical images of certificates (downloaded immediately as PDF files) are cheaper than certified printed copies of certificates (posted to you).
- Search Queensland BDM indexes online for free and order online the historical image of a certificate more cheaply than a certified historical certificate here.
Years ago I studied number theory, and I still find patterns of numbers fascinating, especially when they suggest underlying explanations.
On first glance the Australian Historical Population Statistics on the website of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (Table 1, ‘Population by sex, states and territories, 31 December 1788, onwards’) – well maybe it didn’t look fascinating at first glance. In fact all those numbers look a bit intimidating.
However I am writing a course on Australian Family History (for the National Institute of Genealogical Studies – NIGS) and I started looking more closely at the population numbers, considering them within regions and then within decades. And then patterns began to emerge as the population trends reflected what was happening at the time.
I mean – look at Victoria. It didn’t become a separate colony until 1851 (before that the area was known as the ‘Port Phillip District of NSW’) so there are no statistics for the Victorian colony until 1851. However the new Victorian colony in 1851 had a population of 97,000. A year later this had grown to 168,000 and 2 years later to nearly 284,000. The reason of course was the gold rush, but those numbers echo the stories we read of ships deserted in Port Phillip Bay, when passengers and crew rushed off to the goldfields, often before immigration officials could record who had arrived.
The Swan River settlement in Western Australia was founded in 1829, and at the end of that year, the population was 1,003. Numbers crept up over the next 20 years, including a slight boost in the 1850s and 1860s when the western colony requested convicts for labour (at a time when the eastern colonies rejected convicts because of their gold rush immigration boom).
By 1881 there were still only 30,000 in Western Australia. The numbers continued to grow slowly, boosted by gold discoveries in the Kimberley region in 1885 (although the population actually dropped between 1887 and 1888). Huge finds at Coolgardie in 1892 sparked a major gold rush: in 1892 the WA population was 58,000; in 1894 the population jumped to 81,000 and a year later it passed 100,000.
The Goldfields Pipleline brought water to Kalgoorlie in 1903 and contributed to significant population increase in the new state of Western Australia, especially in the years leading up to World War 1.
South Australia had a population of 546 in 1836, but increased by over 15,000 in its first 5 years.
Northern Territory was called the ‘Northern Territory of South Australia’ from 1863 until 1911, so separate numbers for the NT do not exist before 1911, when it is described as having 3,000 residents. Those numbers creep up until it appears that the population approximately doubled in 1961, from 24,000 the year before to 45,000 in 1961. In fact the explanation is that 1961 was the first year that ‘estimates of indigenous populations’ were included into the totals.
Tasmania’s numbers are interesting in that the population actually dropped each year from 1914 to 1916, and then again in the years 1924 to 1926. The population dropped again in 1941, as well as in each of the years between 1997 and 2000.
Mark Twain attributed to Disraeli the comment about there being “three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics”. We could interpret these population statistics to imply many things. However to me some trends seem to have obvious explanations, while others make me think “I must find out why…”
I’ve been very busy lately, writing and teaching, but without time to write new blog entries.
At the recent History and Genealogy Expo, run by Unlock The Past, I gave talks entitled ‘Which Genealogy Program?’ and ‘DNA for Genealogists’.
‘Which Genealogy Program?‘ is the title of the book I wrote with Rosemary Kopittke, and it is available through Gould Genealogy & Heraldry. Actually today I finished the revisions for an updated edition 2 of the book, which will be launched next week at the History and Genealogy Roadshow. Edition 2 of the book includes reviews of the latest versions of Ezitree Plus, Family Tree Maker 2011 and MacFamily Tree.
A second talk I gave at the Expo was ‘DNA for Genealogists’, and a short excerpt from my talk can be seen in this clip. (Having seen it, I realise that I really must learn to trust the remote controls for changing slides, so I don’t need to keep looking down at the computer in order to step through the slides of my presentations!)
I have also attended the ‘Lost in the Internet’ seminar at the State Library of NSW, conducted by the Society of Australian Genealogists (SAG). My topic to speak on there was ‘How Pay-to-view Websites can be Good Value’. A photo from that day can be seen here.
Today Louise St Denis, the Managing Director of the National Institute of Genealogical Studies (NIGS) released some information that will also be announced next week at the Roadshow – I am to be the Director of Australian Studies for an Australian Certificate course run through NIGS. Her announcement can be seen here. The various courses will be released over 2011.
Anyway all that is why I haven’t had time to write about anything in particular, although I have actually been doing a lot of genealogical writing. With all these talks, I decided to make available on my website the handouts from some of the talks I have given in the last few years. (Bear in mind that some of these handouts were prepared some years ago – each shows the date indicating when it was prepared.)
I retain the copyright, but hopefully at least some of the information contained might be useful for others. Handouts include: Arrivals (Immigration); Australian births, deaths & marriages; Australian government archives; DNA for genealogists; Pay-to-view websites; New Zealand research; Publishing personal research to the Internet; Scottish research; Victorian Goldrush; Western Australian genealogy.
I was fortunate enough to attend two reunions this weekend, in both cases with friends I’ve known half my life or more. This set me thinking about our ancestors and their friends. When we find a ‘visitor’ or ‘boarder’ staying with our ancestors in a 19th century census, how much effort do we put into trying to track down who that visitor was?
A child might well turn out to be a grandchild (or niece or nephew), and their surname might provide the clue to what happened to missing children or siblings. Often the boarder or visitor is a relative. Just as today, when visiting or moving to a new location, it might be convenient to stay with a family connection. Or perhaps the visitor was a work colleague.
Sometimes we don’t know the reason why the boarder is staying in that particular family home, but they continue to be present at census after census. One such person in my family history is Ralph MORT. In the 1851 census, Ralph and his younger sister Ann were lodging with the family of William and Maria KELLETT, in Preston, Lancashire (England). William was my 3g.grandfather, and in the 1851 census William was listed as a coal carter and Ralph MORT was a (railway) engine driver, so perhaps they knew each other through work. That is the nearest I have found to a possible explanation for their connection.
In the 1861, 1871 and 1881 censuses, Ralph (without his sister Ann) continued to live with the KELLETT family. William KELLETT died in 1883 and his wife Maria in 1889. In the 1891 census, Ralph was listed as the head of the household, living at that same address with KELLETT relatives. In 1901 (again same address) 81-year-old Ralph is back to being a boarder with a KELLETT son as head of the household.
When I ordered a copy of the 1889 will of Maria KELLETT, I had a sinking feeling as I deciphered the names of her heirs. I had never heard of the children that were named and the children that I knew about were not mentioned. I thought I must have the wrong Maria KELLETT – until I interpreted the signature of a witness – Ralph MORT. It was the confirmation I needed that in fact I had the right will and so a number of new children to research as relatives.
Ralph Mort – long-time friend or a branch of the family not yet connected? (Ralph’s will unfortunately does not answer that question.) Either way for me “and Ralph Mort” is like the full stop at the end of this family sentence. He is also an example of why it is worth paying attention to the various lodgers and visitors listed with our families on census nights.
How disappointing it is to order a marriage certificate for your genealogy research, and when you receive it, find some of the fields blank. In the case of marriage certificates in NSW,all hope is not necessarily lost.
The First Fleet landed in what was to become Sydney on 26th January 1788 and the first marriage took place soon after. (The first baptism and death registered for the new colony actually occurred en route to Australia, in 1787.)
Britain had claimed all the are from 133 degrees east to 135 degrees east for the new colony of New South Wales. That western boundary line passes roughly down the middle of the Australian continent, to the east it included New Zealand and beyond. All this area was originally administered as part of the colony of New South Wales. Boundaries and borders changed over time, and new colonies were created out of land that was previously NSW.
But back to those marriages. The earliest baptisms, marriages and burials in the colony of New South Wales were recorded in the church records. On 1st March 1856 Civil Registration was established in NSW, meaning that the government began administering the registration of births, marriages and deaths, and issuing certificates. The Registry began acquiring the church records.
Between 1856 and 1895, some details (such as details of the parents of bride and groom), were recorded in the church marriage documents but not in the official Registry documents. In 1912 Registry staff began collecting these additional details and adding them into the Registry copies, but the process was never completed.
Most of the surviving 19th century church records have now been filmed and made available as part of the ‘Church and Parish Registers Joint Copy Project’, conducted by the Society of Australian Genealogists (SAG), the State Library of NSW and the National Library of Australia. In addition many church records have been filmed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints – check out the Library Catalogue on FamilySearch.
So if you obtain a copy of a marriage certificate which has the parents’ details blank, it would be a good idea to check out the corresponding church marriage record. Often the information was recorded there, but just not transferred into the copy held by the NSW Registry.